China Real Estate wrongs Peng Zhaozhi/Xinhua/ZumaPress

المساوئ العقارية في الصين

بكين ــ كان القطاع العقاري في الصين مصدراً للقلق الشديد لسنوات عديدة، مع ارتفاع أسعار العقارات إلى عنان السماء وما ترتب على ذلك من مخاوف من فرط النشاط في سوق الإسكان. ولكن مع تباطؤ نمو الأسعار، يبدو أن الحملة التي تنظمها الحكومة لكبح جماح المخاطر العراقية بدأت تمسك بزمام الأمر أخيرا. والآن بات الخطر متمثلاً في احتمال انهيار سوق الإسكان ــ وهو ما من شأنه أن يُسقِط معه آفاق الصين الاقتصادية.

في إطار جهودها الرامية إلى السيطرة على أسعار المساكن المتزايدة الارتفاع، لاحقت الحكومة الصينية تسع سياسات متميزة، وإن لم تخدم جميعها الغرض منها. ورغم أن سياسات مثل فرض قيود على الرهن العقاري للمشترين لأول مرة، وفرض حد أدنى من متطلبات السكن على شراء العقارات في مدن الصف الأول مثل بكين أو شنغهاي، ساعدت في تخفيف الطلب، فإن تكتيكات جانب العرض مثل الحد من الائتمان المقدم لشركات البناء وفرض ضرائب جديدة على مبيعات العقارات، أثبتت كونها تكتيكات هدّامة.

فقد سمح هذا النهج المعيب لأسعار الإسكان في الصين بالاستمرار في الارتفاع بشكل مضطرد، وتغذية فقاعات إسكان كبرى، وخاصة في مدن الصف الأول. إن المقيم المتوسط في بكين لابد أن يوفر كل دخله لمدة 34 عاماً قبل أن يتمكن من شراء شقة سكنية. وفي شنغهاي وجوانجتشو، يصبح المعادل 29 عاماً و27 عاماً على التوالي ــ وهذا أعلى كثيراً من الحال في المدن العالمية الكبرى الأخرى.

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