Xi Jinping, President of China Stranger/APA Images via ZUMA Wire

阿拉伯的习主席

北京—那些批评中国外交政策谨小慎微的人需要重新考虑立场了。中国国家主席习近平刚刚结束了对沙特阿拉伯和伊朗的访问。这两个国家都是中东主要力量,目前处于严重对峙状态。此次出访体现了习近平所主导的更加积极的外交政策方针,特别是在中东。这一新方针引出了一个重要问题:中国在该地区的影响力是否比美国更具建设性?

如今显然是介入中东的敏感时刻,理查德·哈斯(Richard N. Haass)认为,该地区正在展开一场新三十年战争,“内战和代理战争已无法区分”。导致当前乱象——其根源是众多深层次挑战和冲突汇聚在一起——的一大关键因素是2003年美国入侵伊拉克。美国推翻了萨达姆·侯赛因的逊尼派政权,为什叶派领导的政府扫清了道路,这一变化让地区平衡向伊朗倾斜,也让逊尼派统治的沙特阿拉伯感到被什叶派联盟所包围。

因此,伊朗和沙特阿拉伯都深深介入了叙利亚内战。它们知道,叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德的阿拉维派政权的命运对于地区秩序具有重大影响。对沙特阿拉伯来说,在最近伊核问题达成协议(长期限制伊朗作为地区领导者雄心的国际经济制裁将因此取消)的情况下,制约伊朗是其第一要务。

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