El regreso de las guerras de divisas

NUEVA YORK – La reciente decisión del Banco de Japón de extender la flexibilización cuantitativa marca el posible inicio de otra guerra de divisas. El intento japonés de debilitar el yen es una política de competencia desleal que ya alienta reacciones en Asia y el mundo.

Los bancos centrales de China, Corea del Sur, Taiwán, Singapur y Tailandia, temerosos de perder competitividad respecto de Japón, están flexibilizando sus propias políticas monetarias (o lo harán pronto). Es probable que el Banco Central Europeo y sus homólogos de Suiza, Suecia, Noruega y unos pocos países centroeuropeos adopten la flexibilización cuantitativa u otras políticas no convencionales para evitar la apreciación de sus monedas.

Con la mejora del crecimiento en Estados Unidos y las señales de la Reserva Federal de que comenzará a subir los tipos de interés el próximo año, todo esto llevará a un fortalecimiento del dólar estadounidense. Pero si el crecimiento global no despega y el dólar se fortalece demasiado, puede ocurrir que la Reserva Federal decida demorar la suba de tasas y aplicarla más lentamente, para evitar una apreciación excesiva del dólar.

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