Женщины и американская президентская кампания

ОЛИМПИЯ, ВАШИНГТОН – Главными соперниками на президентских выборах США в этом году являются Барак Обама и Джон Мак Кейн, однако немаловажную роль в предвыборной кампании играют также две очень разные женские фигуры – Хиллари Клинтон и Сара Палин. В самом деле, многие обозреватели придерживаются убеждения, что результат выборов определят женщины. Итак, перефразируя Зигмунда Фрейда, «Чего же хотят американские женщины?»  

До 1960-х гг. американские женщины были более склонны поддерживать республиканцев, чем мужчины. Во время выборов 1980 года в политических взглядах мужчин и женщин обнаружилось новое расхождение, и женщины отдавали большее предпочтение демократам. В 1996 году женщины отдали Биллу Клинтону на 14 процентов больше голосов, чем мужчины, и в 2000 году предпочтение женщинами Аль Гора принесло ему на 12 процентных пунктов больше, чем Джорджу Бушу.

Однако после 1996 года расхождения в политических взглядах мужчин и женщин разделились наполовину. Согласно расхожему мнению, женщинами, снова сочувствующие республиканцам, являются «секьюрити мамы» – живущие в пригородах жёны и матери, которых после террористических атак 11 сентября 2001 года обеспокоил вопрос безопасности их семей. То, что Мак Кейн выбрал Палин, было попыткой аппелировать к ним и привлечь голоса женщин, разочарованных потерей Клинтон.

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