Sobre el encuadre legal del derribo del MH17

FILADELFIA – El presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, calificó el derribo del vuelo 17 de Malaysia Airlines como un “ultraje de proporciones indescriptibles”, mientras que el presidente ruso, Vladímir Putin, lo llamó “accidente” y “terrible tragedia”. El presidente ucraniano, Petró Poroshenko, lo categorizó como “acto de terrorismo”, y el primer ministro de Malasia, Najib Razak, dijo que fue un “acto inhumano, incivilizado, violento e irresponsable”.

Todas estas descripciones pueden ser exactas, pero la carga retórica y las implicaciones legales de cada una son diferentes. Ya es tiempo de que los gobiernos y organismos internacionales califiquen el ataque al MH17 como probable crimen de guerra.

Este desplazamiento retórico es necesario, antes que nada, porque enmarcar en una misma terminología el carácter moralmente reprobable de este acto despreciable ayudará a ordenar las distintas percepciones públicas del hecho. En la actualidad, el discurso público relacionado con el ataque es totalmente distinto en Rusia y en Occidente: mientras los medios de prensa y funcionarios rusos lo describen, en el mejor de los casos, como un terrible accidente, y en el peor de los casos, como un complot estadounidense para debilitar el apoyo a los rebeldes, los estadounidenses y los europeos acusan cada vez más abiertamente a Rusia de estar posiblemente equipando o asistiendo a los rebeldes.

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