La tentation française de l’Italie

FLORENCE – L’Italie une fois de plus se laisse bercer par de faux espoirs voulant que si elle « répare » ses institutions, sa vie politique devienne plus normale. Cette fois, l’Italie semble plutôt attirée par le modèle français.

Depuis le scrutin général de février a fait chou blanc, les législateurs italiens ne sont entendus que sur une chose : la réélection du président Giorgio Napolitano, âgé de 88 ans qui fait de lui le premier président avoir obtenu deux mandats depuis que l’Italie a aboli la monarchie en 1946. Malgré les protestations de Beppe Grillo et de son mouvement Cinque Stelle qui souscrit à l’antipartisme politique et qui a remporté le quart du vote parlementaire, les principaux partis de centre gauche et du centre droit qui ont appuyé Napolitano espèrent qu’il acceptera de diriger la formation d’une coalition gouvernementale élargie.

Il sera toutefois nécessaire de revoir en bloc le régime politique du pays pour résoudre la myriade de lacunes institutionnelles de l’Italie, celles-là mêmes qui ont mené à la fragmentation endémique, à une situation ingouvernable, au disfattismo (défaitisme) et à la frustration généralisée du grand public envers l’élite politique. Puisque la France a surmonté le même genre de lacunes et d’impasses politiques grâce à la fondation de la Ve République, constituée d’un exécutif robuste dirigé par un président doté des pleins pouvoirs, le modèle français semble être un modèle porteur qui vaut la peine d’être imité. En fait, de prime abord, un tel changement de régime en Italie semble facile à réaliser.

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