La desconexión francesa

PARÍS – Una situación desesperada puede la inclusión, otrora impensable, de ciertos temas en el debate público. En Francia, la idea que ahora se atreve a pronunciar su nombre en público es que el país se hundirá en un malestar económico cada vez más profundo, a menos que recupere su soberanía monetaria.

Dos llamativas declaraciones sobre la política económica por parte de los líderes franceses en las primeras semanas de este año han resaltado la fuerza de esta lógica. En primer lugar, el presidente François Hollande, preocupado por la apreciación del euro frente a otras de las principales monedas del mundo, llamó a fijar metas para el tipo de cambio. Luego, el ministro de economía Pierre Moscovici anunció la posibilidad de que Europa permita a Francia una demora para el cumplimiento de su meta de déficit presupuestario, del 3 % del PBI, exigida a partir de este año según el recientemente ratificado pacto fiscal de la zona del euro.

Estas posiciones implican el deseo de ejercer el poder soberano sobre las reglas y decisiones de la Unión Económica y Monetaria. Allá por 1989-1991, exactamente el mismo motivo subyació a la imposición del euro a Alemania por parte del presidente François Mitterrand –esto es, para aprovechar el poder monetario del Bundesbank en un marco que brindase confianza a Francia respecto de la influencia decisiva que podría ejercer. Como la moneda única fue la condición francesa para aceptar la reunificación alemana, Alemania le siguió el juego. Dos décadas más tarde, el humor germano puede haber cambiado.

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