Una maggiore integrazione salverà il modello sociale d’Europa?

BRUXELLES – Negli incontri di alto livello dell’élite dell’Unione europea si sente spesso la seguente affermazione: “L’Europa deve integrare e centralizzare la governance economica allo scopo di difendere il proprio modello sociale in un’era di globalizzazione”. Il presidente della Commissione europea José Manuel Barroso e il suo omologo presso il Consiglio europeo, Herman van Rompuy, insistono particolarmente su questo punto.

Ma l’affermazione secondo cui solo una maggiore integrazione dell’Ue potrebbe salvare il modello sociale “europeo” dall’assalto dei mercati emergenti non è vera. Sì, la globalizzazione rappresenta una sfida per tutti gli Stati membri dell’Ue, ma non è chiaro in che modo una maggiore integrazione li aiuterebbe a fronteggiarla. Una maggiore governance economica europea non è una panacea.

Di fatto, non è nemmeno chiaro quale modello sociale europeo debba essere salvato. Esistono enormi differenze tra i membri dell’Ue in termini di ampiezza dei settori pubblici, flessibilità dei mercati del lavoro e praticamente qualsiasi altro indicatore socio-economico venga in mente. Gli elementi comuni che sono solitamente identificati con il modello sociale “europeo” sono la ricerca di uguaglianza e un forte welfare state.

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