Jak kontrolovat čínskou měnu

PEKING – Je nesporné, že Čína vydává příliš mnoho měny. Důvody tohoto masivního růstu čínské likvidity – a nejúčinnější strategie jeho zvládání – jsou však méně zjevné.

Poslední desetiletí bylo v Číně „zlatým věkem“ vysokého růstu a nízké inflace. Od roku 2003 do roku 2012 dosahoval roční růst HDP v Číně průměrně 10,5%, přičemž ceny rostly pouze o 3% ročně. Nevídaná rychlost a velikost čínské měnové expanze však zůstává důvodem k znepokojení, protože by ještě stále mohla vyvolat vysokou inflaci a vést k bublinám cen aktiv, růstu dluhu a odlivu kapitálu.

Údaje z Čínské lidové banky (PBOC) ukazují, že ke konci loňského roku činila čínská M2 (široká peněžní zásoba) 97,4 bilionu jüanů (15,6 bilionu dolarů) neboli 188% HDP. Naproti tomu M2 ve Spojených státech činí pouze asi 63% HDP. Podle Standard Chartered Bank dokonce patří Číně první místo na světě, pokud jde o celkovou M2 i nově vydanou měnu. V roce 2011 se Čína podílela na celosvětové nově přidané likviditě odhadem z 52%.

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