La Banca Mondiale di Chi?

NEW YORK – La candidatura di Jim Yong Kim alla presidenza della Banca Mondiale da parte del presidente americano Barack Obama é stata ben accolta – e a ragione, in particolare visti alcuni degli altri nomi di candidati in circolazione. Con Kim, professore di sanitá pubblica attualmente presidente dell’Universitá di Dartmouth, che ha diretto in passato il dipartimento responsabile di HIV/AIDS dell’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanitá, gli Stati Uniti hanno proposto un buon candidato. Eppure la nazionalitá del candidato, ed il Paese che lo promuove – sia esso piccolo e povero o grande e ricco – non dovrebbero giocare alcun ruolo nel determinare chi ottiene l'incarico.

Gli 11 direttori esecutivi della Banca Mondiale provenienti da paesi emergenti e in via di sviluppo hanno avanzato altre due eccellenti candidature, quella di Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala della Nigeria e quella di Jose Antonio Ocampo della Colombia. Ho lavorato a stretto contatto con entrambi. Tutti e due sono di prima categoria, hanno servito come ministri con portafogli molteplici, hanno ottenuto risultati ammirevoli in posizioni di vertice in organizzazioni multilaterali, e posseggono le capacitá diplomatiche e la competenza professionale per svolgere un ottimo lavoro. Capiscono la finanza e l’economia, il pane quotidiano alla Banca Mondiale, e posseggono una rete di conoscenze per poter promuovere l’efficacia dell’azione della Banca.

Okonjo-Iweala apporta la conoscenza interna dell’istituto. Ocampo, come Kim, porta i vantaggi e gli svantaggi di essere un outsider; ma Ocampo, illustre professore alla Columbia University, ha una profonda familiaritá con la Banca Mondiale. In passato ha servito non solo come Ministro dell’economia e delle finanze, ma anche dell’agricoltura – una qualifica cruciale, dato che la grande maggioranza dei poveri nei paesi in via di sviluppo dipende da attivitá agricole. Possiede inoltre notevoli credenziali in campo ambientale, affrontando un'altra delle preoccupazioni centrali della Banca.

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