Кто должен руководить Всемирным банком?

ВАШИНГТОН, ОКРУГ КОЛУМБИЯ. Роберт Зеллик в июне оставит пост председателя Всемирного банка, в очередной раз поднимая щекотливый вопрос руководства Бреттон-Вудскими близнецами (Банком и МВФ). При их рождении Джон Мейнард Кейнс незабываемо предупредил, что если эти институты не получат хороших лидеров, они «погрузятся в вечный сон, никогда не проснутся и о них никогда не услышат в судах и на рынках человечества».

Хороший лидер, конечно, требует тщательного отбора. Тем не менее, сегодня мир застрял как раз в обратном: страшно устаревшем процессе, посредством которого США и Европа, несмотря на свои экономические страдания, сохраняют монополию на руководство Банком и, соответственно, МВФ.

Есть неохотное согласие на изменение этой системы. Однако силы, сохраняющие статус-кво – европейское и американское сопротивление изменениям и пассивность развивающихся стран – по-прежнему сильны, как это показал выбор Кристин Лагард для руководства МВФ. Политика в год выборов в США дополнительно укрепит эти силы, а администрация президента Обамы вряд ли откажется от символа мировой державы, что может вызвать обвинения со стороны оппонентов в слабом руководстве.

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