Quel État palestinien ?

JÉRUSALEM – Les Israéliens et les Palestiniens se préparent à une confrontation en septembre prochain aux Nations unies, lorsque l’Autorité palestinienne déposera une demande d’adhésion à part entière d’un État de Palestine dans les frontières de 1967, avant la Guerre des Six jours (lorsque Israël a pris le contrôle des territoires occupés par la Jordanie). Les détails de l’acte de candidature ne sont pas encore entièrement connus et la démarche comporte des risques sérieux. Mais une évaluation réaliste de ce qui pourrait découler d’une acceptation des frontières palestiniennes par l’Onu invite à un optimisme prudent.

Compte tenu de l’impasse persistante dans laquelle se trouvent les négociations bilatérales avec Israël, la requête palestinienne pour un statut d’État non membre devant l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies a toutes les chances de relancer ce processus. Elle a déjà donné lieu à une frénésie diplomatique sans précédent. Tandis que les Palestiniens voyagent de par le monde pour rallier un soutien, les autorités israéliennes se sont lancées dans des efforts de dernière minute pour dissuader les pays de soutenir ce qu’elles perçoivent comme une démarche palestinienne unilatérale.

Ces manœuvres diplomatiques ont déjà produit des résultats relativement prévisibles. Alors que les Etats-Unis ont annoncé leur intention d’opposer leur droit de veto à une déclaration du Conseil de sécurité, plusieurs pays européens, dont la Grande-Bretagne et la France, entendent appuyer l’acte de candidature de l’Autorité palestinienne si les négociations avec Israël restent au point mort. La majorité des États représentés à l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies, en une grande manifestation de solidarité des pays en développement, a clairement fait savoir qu’elle soutiendrait l’initiative palestinienne.

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