Matt Wuerker

Která globalizace přežije?

CAMBRIDGE – Světové hospodářství se letos poprvé od roku 1945 smrští a někteří ekonomové se obávají, že by současná krize mohla signalizovat začátek konce globalizace. Krušné ekonomické časy se pojí s protekcionismem, neboť každá země dává vinu ostatním a chrání svá domácí pracovní místa. Ve 30. letech 20. století právě politiky známé pod heslem „ožebrač svého souseda“ zjitřily situaci. Pokud se političtí lídři takovým reakcím neubrání, mohla by se minulost stát budoucností.

Taková pochmurná vyhlídka by však paradoxně nemusela znamenat konec globalizace, definované jako vzestup celosvětových sítí vzájemné závislosti. Globalizace má několik rozměrů a navzdory tomu, že ekonomové globalizaci a světovou ekonomiku velice často vykreslují jako jedno a totéž, i jiné formy globalizace mají na naše životy významné důsledky – a nejen příznivé.

Nejstarší forma globalizace je environmentální. Nejdávnější epidemie neštovic byla kupříkladu zaznamenána v Egyptě roku 1350 před Kristem. Čínu zasáhla v roce 49 po Kristu, Evropu po roce 700, americké kontinenty v roce 1520 a Austrálii v roce l789. Dýmějový mor neboli černá smrt měl původ v Asii, ale jeho šíření ve čtrnáctém století připravilo o život čtvrtinu až třetinu evropské populace.

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