当法国说“不”

不久以前,一位美国的政治分析家将法国在2005年的全民公决对欧盟宪法公约说“不”以后在欧洲丧失影响力的情况与其在1940年的投降相提并论。这一类比颇具争议,但它是否贴切呢?1940年的崩溃揭示了法国民主的脆弱和其对自己国家面对外来挑战的信心的丧失。而否决欧盟宪法至少反映了法国对全球化的恐惧。

更好的类比是在1954年对建立欧洲防御共同体(EDC)的否决。法国在两个案例中都犯了历史性错误。在很大程度上,法国都是两个公约的发起国,并成功地使其欧洲伙伴接受了它们,但在最后又用否决票令自己功亏一篑。

为什么,在1954年和2005年,法国—一次是国民会议,一次是选民—否决了法国自己构想的提案呢?两个项目都试图建立一个真正超国家的欧洲。EDC本可以建立一支甚至包括德国部队在内的欧洲军队。提议中的防御公约本来还要通过一个欧洲政治共同体计划来加强。该共同体的主要特点将会通过一个由各国议会组成的宪法委员会来明确。实际上这一委员会本来会是2003-2004年“欧洲未来大会”的前身。该大会在法国前总统Valéry Giscard d’Estaing的主持下起草了宪法公约。

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