¿Qué hay de Nuevo en el Nuevo Ejército Afgano?

El asesinato multitudinario del Ministro de Aviación de Afganistán (quizá incitado por miembros de la propia administración temporal de Afganistán) muestra que la sociedad afgana sigue estando profundamente fisurada. Las primeras reformas del ejército afgano sólo harán esas divisiones más amplias.

El Ministro de la Defensa de la administración temporal de Hamid Karzai en Kabul ya nombró a los oficiales más altos de ese nuevo ejército. El ministro, el general Mohammed Fahim, es un tayik del distrito Panjshir en el norte del país que hace tres meses asumió el comando de las fuerzas de la Alianza del Norte que capturaron Kabul después de que los bombarderos estadounidenses les aclararon el camino. En conjunto, sus nombramientos plantean un reto directo al objetivo que tiene el Sr. Karzai de reunificar al país.

Afganistán es una nación multiétnica, siendo los pashtun el grupo más grande, con dos quintas partes del total. Los hazara y los tayik constituyen cada cual cerca de una quinta parte de la población. De treintaiocho oficiales elevados al rango de general por el Sr. Fahim, treintaisiete son tayik y el otro uzbek. Si alguno de los quince a diecisiete millones de pashtun del país es reclutado como soldado, servirá bajo una estructura de comando formada casi en su totalidad por tayiks. El idioma de los pashtun, sin embargo, es tan distinto del tayik como el español del inglés y millones de los pashtun en edad de servir en la milicia saben sólo un soplo de tayik, en el mejor de los casos.

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