Paul Lachine

¿Que hay en un BRIC?

SAO PAULO – El Brasil, Rusia, la India y China han celebrado recientemente  su segunda cumbre anual en Brasilia. Los periodistas siguen prodigando atención a esos llamados países “BRIC”, pero yo sigo sintiendo escepticismo ante ese concepto.

Goldman Sachs acuñó el término en 2001 para señalar las oportunidades de beneficios en los denominados “mercados en ascenso”. La proporción del PIB  mundial representada por los BRIC pasó del 16 por ciento en 2000 al 22 por ciento en 2008. Colectivamente, tuvieron unos resultados mejores que la media en la posterior recesión mundial. Juntos, representan el 42 por ciento de la población mundial y un tercio del crecimiento económico mundial en los diez últimos años. Dejando de lado a los Estados Unidos (que ocupa la tercera posición por población), el crecimiento económico anual en los cuatro países más populosos –China, la India, Indonesia y el Brasil– fue superior a 5-6 por ciento en el período 2000-2009.

Evidentemente, se trata de una buena noticia para la economía mundial, pero ese término económico ha adquirido una vida política propia, pese a que Rusia no acaba de encajar demasiado en esa categoría. Como comentó Beijing Review, “cuando Goldman Sachs creóla sigla BRIC en 2001, ni los economistas ni el resto del mundo imaginaron que el Brasil, Rusia, la India y China acabarían sentándose un día a crear una plataforma”. En junio de 2009, los ministros de Asuntos Exteriores de los cuatro países se reunieron por primera vez en Yekaterinburgo (Rusia) para transformar una sigla pegadiza en una fuerza política internacional.

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