Paul Lachine

BRIC, vous avez dit BRIC ?

SAO PAULO – Le Brésil, la Russie, l’Inde et la Chine ont récemment tenu leur deuxième sommet annuel à Brasilia. Les journalistes persistent à concentrer leur attention sur ces soit disant « BRIC » mais je reste sceptique quant à ce concept.

Goldman Sachs avait imaginé cette appellation en 2001 pour désigner les opportunités rentables sur ce que l’on appelle généralement les « marchés émergeants ». La part des BRIC dans le PIB mondial est passée de 16% en 2000 à 22% en 2008. Collectivement, ils ont fait mieux que la moyenne dans la récession globale qui s’en est suivie. Ensemble, ils représentent 42% de la population mondiale et un tiers de la croissance économique globale depuis dix ans. Sans compter les Etats Unis (qui se classent au troisième rang en terme démographique), la croissance économique annuelle dans les quatre autres pays les plus peuplés du monde (la Chine, l’Inde, l’Indonésie et le Brésil) était supérieure à 5-6% entre 2000 et 2009.

C’est bien sur une bonne nouvelle pour l’économie mondiale, mais une terminologie économique a fini par assumer sa propre vie politique, malgré le fait que la Russie ne soit pas très bonne élève dans cette catégorie. Et comme le faisait remarquer le Beijing Review, « lorsque Goldman Sachs inventa l’acronyme en 2001, ni les économistes, ni le reste du monde n’auraient pu imaginer que le Brésil, la Russie, l’Inde et la Chine s’assiéraient un jour autour d’une table pour bâtir une tribune d’envergure. » En Juin 2009, les ministres des affaires étrangères de ces quatre pays se sont réunis pour la première fois à Ekaterinbourg en Russie pour façonner une force politique internationale à partir d’un acronyme accrocheur.

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