La Russie de Weimar revisitée

L'expression « Russie de Weimar » a fait son apparition 13 années auparavant, à l'apogée de la confrontation entre le président de l'époque Boris Yeltsin et le Soviet suprême, confrontation qui a pris fin lorsque les chars d'assaut de Yeltsin ont bombardé le parlement. Le sens de cette expression était clair pour tous : la Russie de Weimar, comme l'Allemagne de Weimar, signifiait une république faible attaquée de l'intérieur par des nationalistes aspirant à rétablir l'autoritarisme.

A la fin des années 1990 et au début des années 2000, les problèmes ayant inspiré les craintes d'un état dysfonctionnel ont paru diminuer. Mais au cours des derniers 18 mois, le spectre de Weimar a recommencé à hanter la Russie.

Si elle est poussée à l'extrême, la réaction de la société russe à sa modernisation déchirante risque de dégénérer en une révolution nationaliste menée par des xénophobes. Une réaction conservatrice différente et saine reste possible si les vestiges en lambeaux des anciens habits, déchirés sur le chemin de la modernisation postcommuniste, peuvent être recousus et évoluer ensemble dans une nouvelle approche.

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