De l’eau pour tous

Ce mois-ci, une fois de plus, l’eau occupe le devant de la scène au quatrième Forum mondial de l’eau de Mexico. C’est un moment opportun : alors que l'attention d'une grande partie du monde est concentrée sur les questions d'énergie, d’approvisionnement et de sécurité, des centaines de millions de personnes, dans les pays en développement, considèrent toujours l’approvisionnement en eau fraîche comme tout aussi important, si ce n’est plus.

Les enquêtes menées par la Banque mondiale dans les pays en développement montrent que, quand on demande aux populations pauvres de nommer les trois défis les plus importants qu'ils rencontrent, leur « bonne santé » fait toujours partie de cette liste. Et l’élément clé qui détermine s’ils garderont cette bonne santé reste l’accès à une eau propre.

Aujourd’hui, de par le monde, plus d’un milliard de personnes n’y ont pas accès. De ce fait, ils sont toujours plus facilement la proie d'une mauvaise santé. La Banque mondiale estime qu'en 2035, près de trois milliards de personnes, presque toutes dans les pays en développement, pourraient vivre dans des conditions de manque d’eau très graves, particulièrement si elles vivent en Afrique, au Moyen-Orient ou en Asie du Sud. Cela causera des difficultés évidentes, mais cela entravera également la croissance économique nécessaire à ces millions de personnes pour échapper à la pauvreté.

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