Caminar entre gigantes

PARIS –Después de la Cumbre del G20 celebrada en Pittsburg el año pasado, los funcionarios europeos y estadounidenses insistieron en que ser miembro de ese grupo imponía “nuevas responsabilidades”. Invitaron a los encargados del diseño de las políticas de los gigantes emergentes a participar más en la formulación de un nuevo marco económico global –con lo que implícitamente sugerían que hasta entonces no lo habían hecho.

No obstante, las pruebas no apoyan esa opinión. Brasil, China, la India, Corea y México ya habían estado desempeñando un papel decisivo en dos áreas importantes: el régimen global de comercio y el manejo de la crisis económica mundial; falta por ver si también lo harán en un tercer ámbito: el calentamiento global.

Pocos parecen darse cuenta de la contribución fundamental de las economías emergentes al éxito del régimen global de comercio actual. Durante las últimas tres décadas, el éxito impresionante de la liberalización comercial de China ha contribuido más a convencer a otros países en desarrollo de las ventajas del comercio que todas las exhortaciones de los países de la OCDE.

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