Catherine Ashton European External Action Service

La place de l’Europe dans un monde multipolaire

BERLIN – L’un des aspects de la crise ukrainienne que doivent comprendre les pays occidentaux et la Russie est qu’elle ne semble pas vraiment préoccuper le reste du monde. Si l’Occident, aux côtés du Japon, peuvent considérer que cette crise représente un défi pour l’ordre mondial, la plupart des autres nations ne se sentent pas menacées par l’annexion de la Crimée par la Russie ou par les visées que la Fédération russe pourrait avoir sur d’autres régions de l’Ukraine. La situation ukrainienne est davantage perçue comme l’incapacité de l’Europe à résoudre ses propres différends régionaux – même si une issue pacifique à cette crise pourrait renforcer l’influence globale de l’Europe comme artisan de la paix.

A mesure que les événements s’enchaînaient, les politiciens et commentateurs russes ont commencé à parler de « la fin de la période post-Guerre froide », tandis que le vice-Premier ministre russe Dmitri Rogozine semblait même se réjouir du début d’une nouvelle guerre froide. Cette douce illusion repose sur l’idée qu’un conflit entre la Russie et l’Occident définirait à nouveau l’ensemble des relations internationales et redonnerait ainsi à la Russie son statut de superpuissance.

Mais il n’en sera rien. Comme le démontre la réaction des puissances émergentes à la crise ukrainienne, les politiques mondiales ne sont plus définies par ce qui se passe en Europe, même si celle-ci devait être le théâtre d’un conflit majeur. Le système international est devenu tellement multipolaire que les États non européens peuvent aujourd’hui se préoccuper de leurs intérêts au lieu de se sentir obligés de se ranger aux côtés de l’Occident ou de l’Orient.

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