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High-speed trains wait to be maintained in Wuhan, central China's Hubei Province Xinhua/Xiao Yijiu via Getty Images

美国对中国的无力指控

发自纽黑文——表面上看,美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱希泽尔(Robert Lighthizer)在3月22日发布的所谓对华301条款报告似乎已被办成了铁案。在这份详尽无比的182页文件中——光文中那1139个脚注和五个附录就足以使任何法律团队感到自豪了——美国贸易代表对中国多项不平等贸易行为(涵盖技术转让,知识产权和创新等方面)的指控看似既迫切又有理有据。这份报告也因此跃升为特朗普总统政府近几个月来对中国发起多项关税和其他惩罚性贸易措施的根本性证据。对于一场酝酿之中的贸易战来说这可是一枚大杀器。

但可不要被这东西愚弄了,因为该报告其实在几个关键领域都偏离了准星。首先,它指责中国“强迫技术转让”,认为美国公司必须拱手交出专利技术和操作系统的蓝图才能在中国开展业务。据称这类转让将在合资公司的架构范围内进行——也就是与国内同行建立伙伴关系,而中国以及其他国家一直以来以此作为新业务增长和扩张的模式。目前中国共有8000多家合资企业,而自1990年以来全球一共建立了超过11万家合资企业和战略联盟。

值得注意的是,美国及其他跨国公司都是心甘情愿地基于某些合理商业考虑去参与到这些合法协商的安排之中——不仅是要涉足中国迅速增长的国内市场,还可以通过低成本的中国离岸平台来提高运营效率。把美国公司描绘成中国强压下的无辜受害者显然与我当年积极参与摩根士丹利与中国建设银行(以及几个股份不多的小型投资者)合资于1995年成立中国国际金融股份有限公司的经历不符。

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