De l'utilisation du Tribunal de La Haye

Le Tribunal International de La Haye fut établi pour servir d'épée de Damoclès aux violateurs des Droits de l'homme dans les Balkans. À l'intérieur des Balkans, cependant, c'est devenu un outil politique que les nationalistes aussi bien que leurs opposants exploitent sans fin en un stratagème visant à diviser pour (espérer) mieux régner. Et la Croatie représente un cas d'école exemplaire ici.

Des obstacles et des déchirures contrarient maintenant les réformes démocratiques naissantes de la Croatie. Ce tumulte tient au fait que le Premier ministre Ivica Racan refuse de s'attaquer aux centres de pouvoir laissés en place par le régime de l'ancien président Franjo Tudjman, dont le parti à orientation nationaliste, l'Union pour la Démocratie Croate (HDZ), fut exclu du pouvoir en janvier 2001 suite au décès de Tudjman en décembre 1999. Tudjman avait élaboré un régime autoritaire où la frontière entre le HDZ et les administrations gouvernementales était brouillée, en particulier là où l'armée et la police étaient concernées. Cet héritage confus touche au coeur des problèmes actuels de la Croatie et de ses relations avec le Tribunal de La Haye.

En janvier 2001, le nouveau Premier ministre d'alors, Ivica Racan, dut faire face à des choix difficiles : purger rapidement les institutions gouvernementales des partisans de Tudjman ou céder aux stratagèmes obstructionnistes des partisans du HDZ. Fidèle à son indécision instinctive, le Premier ministre tarda. Il préféra concentrer son effort sur les réformes constitutionnelles, généralement perçues comme une tentative visant à priver le nouveau président, Stjepan Mesic (lui-même un opposant de longue date de Tudjman), des pouvoirs exécutifs puissants que Tudjman introduisit à son propre usage dans la constitution.

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