American Migrant Workers John Moore/Getty Images

Si le rêve américain tournait au cauchemar ?

NEW HAVEN – Du fait de la campagne présidentielle américaine et des craintes qu'elle suscite, le débat sur le commerce et ses conséquences pour les travailleurs américains est déformé aux deux extrémités de l'éventail politique. De la droite qui fait de la Chine sa tête de Turc, à la gauche qui s'oppose au Partenariat transpacifique (PTP), les politiques des deux grands partis présentent à tort le commerce extérieur comme la plus grande menace qui pèse sur les USA.

L'année dernière, les USA étaient en situation de déficit commercial avec 101 pays (un déficit commercial multilatéral dans le jargon économique). Mais contrairement à ce que disent les politiques, cela ne tient pas à un ou deux "mauvais acteurs". Il est vrai que le déficit commercial avec la Chine (le bouc émissaire favori) arrive largement en tête de liste, mais la somme des déficits avec les 100 autres pays est plus importante.

Les candidats ne diront pas au peuple américain que le déficit commercial massif des USA et ses répercussions sur une classe moyenne déjà sous pression ont une cause interne, l'insuffisance de l'épargne.

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