American Migrant Workers John Moore/Getty Images

自产自销的美国贸易赤字

发自纽黑文——在美国总统选战的大肆煽动之下,针对贸易问题的辩论及其对美国工人的影响在政治光谱的两端都被扭曲了。左派对跨太平洋伙伴关系(TPP)协定极为不满,而右派则不断抨击中国,两党的政治家们都将对外贸易曲解为美国最大的经济威胁。

在2015年,美国对101个国家拥有贸易赤字——即经济学术语中的所谓多边贸易赤字。但切不可像这帮政客们那样总是归咎于一两个“坏家伙”。虽然中国——大家最喜欢找的替罪羊——确实占了这种不平衡状况的大头,但其他100个国家加起来的综合赤字其实更为庞大。

但那些候选人不会向美国民众说明的是,贸易赤字及其对举步维艰的中产阶级工人所带来的压力其实是由美国国内的问题所导致的。事实上,美国拥有如此庞大多边贸易赤字的真正原因是美国人不愿意储蓄。

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