John Sommers II/Stringer

La justicia económica y la elección presidencial estadounidense

STANFORD/NUEVA YORK – Este año, los votantes estadounidenses expresaron su descontento volcándose en grandes números en favor de candidatos anti‑establishment, tanto en el Partido Demócrata como en el Republicano. Un factor detrás del malestar del electorado es evidente: muchos estadounidenses de a pie creen que las cartas están marcadas en su contra. Ante la pregunta de “¿Cree usted que el sistema económico estadounidense favorece en general a los ricos, o es justo con la mayoría de los estadounidenses?”, un asombroso 71% de los encuestados (incluida una mayoría de los republicanos) dijo que el sistema favorece a los ricos.

Una causa importante de esta percepción es el régimen tributario. Cuando se pregunta a los estadounidenses en concreto por los impuestos, aparece el mismo mensaje: una mayoría de los votantes (62%) cree que el sistema impositivo estadounidense favorece a los ricos. En respuesta a este creciente resentimiento, los candidatos presidenciales de los dos partidos prometieron restablecer la justicia económica y reformar el sistema tributario.

Los tres candidatos anti‑establishment más notorios propusieron soluciones marcadamente diferentes. Bernie Sanders, un independiente que se presenta por los demócratas, propone aumentar los impuestos para recaudar 15,3 billones de dólares más a lo largo de la próxima década. Según su plan, las subas más altas serían para los ricos, con un tipo impositivo marginal que llegaría al 54,2% para los estadounidenses más adinerados.

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