anti-g8 protests Sean Gallup/Getty Images

¿Impulsa, realmente, la globalización al populismo?

BRUSELAS – A ambos lados del Atlántico, crece el populismo, tanto de la izquierda como de la derecha. Su más visible abanderado en Estados Unidos es Donald Trump, el presunto candidato presidencial del Partido Republicano. En Europa, hay muchas corrientes – desde el partido izquierdista Podemos en España hasta el derechista Frente Nacional en Francia – no obstante, todas ellas tienen en común oponerse a los partidos de centro y, de manera general, oponerse a la clase política tradicional. ¿Cómo se explica la creciente revuelta de los votantes contra el statu quo?

La explicación que prevalece dice que el creciente populismo es una rebelión de los “perdedores de la globalización”. La lógica de este argumento indica que los líderes de EE.UU. y de Europa, al ir en busca de sucesivas rondas de liberalización del comercio internacional, hubiesen “ahuecado” la base de manufactura doméstica de sus países, reduciendo la disponibilidad de puestos de trabajo que pagan salarios altos a trabajadores poco cualificados, quienes ahora tienen que elegir entre el desempleo prolongado y trabajos de poca importancia en el sector servicios. Hartos de esto, los trabajadores están supuestamente rechazando a los partidos políticos del sistema tradicional por haber encabezado este “proyecto de élite”.

Esta explicación podría parecer convincente al principio. Al fin y al cabo, es cierto que la globalización ha transformado las economías de manera fundamental, enviando los puestos trabajos para trabajadores poco cualificados al mundo en desarrollo – un aspecto que las figuras populistas no se cansan de poner de relieve.

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