Révolution d’un genre nouveau en Tunisie

TUNIS – Dix mois après l’effondrement du régime autoritaire de Zine EL Abidine Ben Ali, la Tunisie semble agir dans le plus grand équilibre entre aspiration révolutionnaire au changement et nécessité pragmatique de continuité. Alors que l’élection d’une assemblée constitutionnelle doit avoir lieu le 23 octobre, le berceau du « Réveil du monde arabe » paraît s’ériger dans la région comme le paradigme d’une transition démocratique stable.

Plusieurs conditions ont été favorables à la démarche tunisienne. Tandis que l’Égypte lutte avec la nécessité d’asseoir l’autorité civile sur le corps militaire, l’armée tunisienne s’est tenue à l’écart de la politique. De même, contrairement à ce qui s’est produit en Lybie, la population tunisienne n’a jamais recouru aux armes lors des manifestations. L’économie ne repose pas sur les hydrocarbures. Et malgré de sérieuses inégalités entre les habitants du littoral tunisien et ceux de l’intérieur des terres, ce petit pays de 10 millions d’habitants reste, d’après la Banque mondiale, une économie à hauts/moyens revenus.

Ce sont surtout les institutions civiles que s’avèrent les plus solides. Un « Haut Conseil », composé de notables de diverses professions et divers bords politiques, a été instauré dans le but d’accompagner la transition. En dépit des fautes commises par le précédent régime, les tunisiens sont fiers des conquêtes libérales accomplies dans leur pays, notamment s’agissant des droits des femmes ou du très progressiste Code de la famille de 1956. Bien que cela soit avec une certaine nostalgie, les hauts responsables de l’administration parlent en privé d’une transition tunisienne menée dans une « remarquable continuité ».

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