Tribus contre terroristes

ISLAMABAD – Assis près d’une conduite d’eau d’un mètre vingt de hauteur, je demandai au chef de tribu, qui se tenait face à moi, ce que signifiait la victoire pour lui. Crachant de la fumée, il leva ses sourcils blancs broussailleux et répondit : « La victoire ? Comment peut-on obtenir la victoire ici ? »

Les Etats-Unis sont allés en Afghanistan pour détruire Al-Qaïda. Sept ans plus tard, le bilan est maigre : qu’ont-ils fait là-bas ? Même avec plus de 170 milliards de dollars dépensés par les Américains en Afghanistan, Al-Qaïda et les talibans sont toujours plus forts. Nous savons que la voie qui mène au cœur d’Al-Qaïda nous conduit désormais aux régions tribales d’administration fédérale ( Federally Administered Tribal Areas ) du Pakistan. Le mois dernier, le vice-président américain élu Joe Biden, a affirmé au sujet des chefs d’Al-Qaïda : « C’est là qu’ils vivent. C’est là qu’ils se trouvent. C’est de là que tout viendra. Et actuellement, [la menace] réside au Pakistan ».

Or, les Etats-Unis ne sont pas du tout présents dans ces régions tribales. Ils ont peu de contacts et communiquent peu avec la population locale et ses dirigeants. Ils apportent peu de soutien, de soins de santé ou d’aide aux personnes qui y vivent. L’Amérique envoie des missiles et procède à des frappes aériennes qui exaspèrent les habitants, plutôt que de l’aide et des émissaires pour nouer le dialogue. Il n’est pas surprenant que les Etats-Unis n’aient pas gagné le soutien de ces régions.

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