Professional man in suit standing in street.

El argumento a favor del TPP

STANFORD – Luego de la conclusión del Acuerdo Transpacífico de Cooperación Económica (TPP por su sigla en inglés) al que adhirieron 12 países de la Cuenca del Pacífico, cada vez se intensifican más los debates sobre los costos y beneficios de la liberalización del comercio. Los líderes de la primera hora en la campaña presidencial de Estados Unidos, tanto el republicano Donald Trump como la demócrata Hillary Clinton, han expresado su oposición al TPP, aunque como secretaria de Estado, Clinton lo calificó como "el patrón oro de los acuerdos comerciales".

El nivel correcto de apertura comercial no es un debate nuevo. Históricamente, los sistemas comerciales han variado entre bastante abiertos y sumamente restringidos por reglas, aranceles o barreras no arancelarias, dependiendo de los cambios en la fortaleza relativa de las fuerzas económicas y políticas liberalizadoras o proteccionistas. Pero inclusive en sistemas cerrados, por más severas que sean las sanciones que imponen al comercio, normalmente se desarrollan mercados negros, debido a los "réditos del comercio" generado por fuerzas económicas naturales.

El deseo de comerciar surge cuando los beneficios domésticos de importar un producto (ya sea un producto terminado o un componente) superan el precio pagado -por ejemplo, si el bien importado no se puede producir en el país o sólo a un costo más elevado-. Como demostró el economista británico David Ricardo hace dos siglos, a un país hasta puede resultarle mejor importar productos que puede producir de manera más económica, si con esto permite la producción de otros productos que son aún más baratos de producir. Los réditos adicionales del comercio incluyen una mayor variedad y las economías de escala que implica producir para mercados globales.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/4WZLYkL/es;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable


    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.