Уроки демократии от Токвиля

Кажется уместным, что из-за войны в Ираке мир стал обсуждать природу демократии спустя 200 лет со дня рождения Алексиса Токвиля. Токвиль стал заслуженно известным за то, что отвергал реакционную ностальгию и считал триумф демократии нашей судьбой, предупреждая в то же время об опасностях, которые демократия несёт для свободы. Стоит ли нам и сейчас разделять его опасения?

Токвиль рассматривал демократию не столько как политический режим, но, прежде всего, как интеллектуальный режим, который в общем виде формирует обычаи общества и, таким образом, влияет на его социологический и психологический аспекты. Демократические режимы, говорил Токвиль, определяют наши мысли, желания и увлечения. Подобно тому, как раньше существовал человек ренессанса, а в ХХ веке советский человек, «демократический человек» является формой человеческого существа.

Токвиль считал, что системное влияние демократии может привести к тому, что люди сами лишат себя логического образа мышления. Они могут только притворяться, что судят о событиях и ценностях сами; в реальности, они начинают просто копировать размытые и упрощённые убеждения масс. Действительно, то, что Токвиль называл влиянием «социальной силы» на убеждения, сильнее всего развито в демократических режимах. Данная точка зрения предсказывает развитие современной демагогии и манипуляции средствами информации.

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