トクヴィルの民主主義レッスン

アレクシス・ド・トクヴィル生誕から200年が過ぎた今、民主主義の本質が世界で議論されていることは、イラク戦争を踏まえ、適切であると思われる。トクヴィルは、復古的なノスタルジアを拒否し、民主主義の勝利が私たちの宿命であると考えたことで、そして一方で、民主主義が自由に対して持っている危険性を警告したことで当然ながら有名である。では、私たちは未だ彼の心配を共有するべきであろうか?

トクヴィルは民主主義を単なる政治的体制として見ていたのではなく、何よりも、

社会の文化全般を形作る知的体制として捉えていた。それによって、社会学的、心理学的側面を与えたのだ。トクヴィルは、民主主義体制が私たちの考え、欲求、そして情熱を決定すると主張した。ちょうどルネッサンスを起こした者がいたように、そして20世紀におけるhomo sovieticusのように、「民主主義を起こす者」もまた、人間の一形態なのである。

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