La bomba que se desvanece

VARSOVIA – El acuerdo de los presidentes estadounidense y ruso de renovar las reducciones de armas estratégicas ha revivido las esperanzas de que se llegue a la abolición mundial de las armas nucleares. Difícilmente se pueda exagerar su urgencia: las armas nucleares pueden caer en las manos de estados que puedan usarlas, así como en las de terroristas que no siguen los lineamientos de estado alguno, creando nuevas amenazas de proporciones inimaginables.

Sueño noble apenas hace unos cuantos años, la eliminación de las armas nucleares ya no es una idea propugnada únicamente por populistas y pacifistas; hoy ya ha sido adoptada por profesionales: políticos conocidos por su realismo y académicos conocidos por su sentido de la responsabilidad.

La invención de las armas nucleares –que sirvieron a la disuasión durante la Guerra Fría, cuando el mundo estaba dividido en dos bloques enfrentados- respondía a las necesidades y riesgos de la época. La seguridad dependía de un equilibrio del temor, como lo reflejaba el concepto de una destrucción mutuamente garantizada.

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