Tim Brinton

Los usos y abusos de la ideología económica

LONDRES – Como reza la célebre cita de John Maynard Keynes, “las ideas de los economistas y de los filósofos políticos, tanto cuando son atinadas como cuando son erróneas, son más influyentes que entendidas comúnmente. Los hombres prácticos, que se consideran totalmente exentos de cualesquiera influencias intelectuales, suelen ser esclavos de algún economista difunto”.

Pero sospecho que hay un peligro mayor: el de que los hombres y las mujeres prácticos que desempeñan funciones directivas en los bancos centrales, los organismos reglamentadores, los gobiernos y los departamentos de gestión de riesgos de las entidades financieras suelen sentir atracción por versiones simplificadas de las ideas predominantes de economistas que, en realidad, están muy vivos.

De hecho, al menos en la esfera de la economía financiera, una versión vulgar de la teoría del equilibrio adquirió predominio en los años anteriores a la crisis financiera, al presentar la plena realización del mercado como la cura para todos los problemas y la complejidad matemática separada de la comprensión filosófica como clave para una gestión eficaz de los riesgos. Instituciones como el Fondo Monetario Internacional, en sus exámenes de la estabilidad financiera mundial expusieron, con confianza, la historia de un sistema que se autoequilibraba.

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