Globalizar el Consejo de Seguridad

BRASILIA – La Carta de las Naciones Unidas de 1945 significó un hito histórico en la búsqueda de la paz basada en un sistema multilateral. Al final de la guerra mundial que cobró más de 50 millones de vidas, los Estados Unidos y la Unión Soviética emergieron como las dos principales potencias del mundo. La Carta de las Naciones Unidas, negociada inicialmente los Estados Unidos, la Unión Soviética y Reino Unido durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, establecía un Consejo de Seguridad de cinco miembros permanentes, incluidos Francia y la República Popular de China.

Las Naciones Unidas empezaron con 51 países; ahora tienen 193 Estados miembros. Sin embargo, aunque el Consejo de Seguridad aumentó en 1965 el número de miembros no permanentes de seis a diez, sus miembros permanentes no han cambiado desde 1945.

El mundo ha tenido transformaciones extraordinarias desde entonces. Aunado a los conflictos interestatales y la proliferación de armas –en particular las armas de destrucción masiva– han surgido nuevos desafíos, como el terrorismo y la participación de actores no estatales en conflictos internos. Mientras tanto, la distribución de poder económico y político ha experimentado una reconfiguración radical, lo que ha sentado las bases para el surgimiento de un orden internacional multipolar.

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