O Conselho de Segurança na Globalização

BRASILIA – A Carta da ONU, de 1945, representou um marco histórico na busca da paz pela via da concertação multilateral. Com o fim do conflito mundial, que provocou mais de 50 milhões de vítimas, os EUA e a URSS emergiram como as duas maiores potências globais. A Carta da ONU, negociada inicialmente entre EUA, URSS e Reino Unido, durante a II Guerra Mundial, previa a criação de um Conselho de Segurança (CSNU), que contaria, fundamentalmente, com cinco membros permanentes, incluindo também França e a República da China.

A ONU, que em sua concepção reunia 51 países, tem hoje 193 membros. No entanto, embora o Conselho de Segurança tenha sido ampliado in 1965, com o aumento de seis para dez  assentos não-permanentes, o número de membros permanentes mantém-se inalterado desde 1945.

Desde então, o mundo passou por importantes transformações. Além dos conflitos entre Estados e a proliferação de armas – em particular, as armas de destruição em massa – novos desafios surgiram, como o terrorismo e a ação de atores não-estatais em conflitos internos. Enquanto isso, a distribuição mundial do poder econômico e da influência política passa por acelerada reconfiguração, criando condições para o surgimento de uma ordem multipolar.

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