Die Wahrheit über die Lastenteilung in der NATO

BRÜSSEL – In vielen Zeitungsbeiträgen über Afghanistan heißt es immer wieder, dass so manches europäische NATO-Mitglied in Afghanistan die geforderte Leistung nicht erbringt und dass man in diesen Ländern entweder nicht in der Lage oder nicht willens sei, größere Anstrengungen zu unternehmen. Natürlich haben diese Mitglieder das Gefühl, ihre Bemühungen werden zu gering geschätzt. Wie sieht denn nun eine faire und angemessene Lastenteilung aus?

Zunächst sollte die Debatte über die Lastenteilung nicht ausschließlich auf die Truppenstärke in Afghanistan reduziert werden, denn so wichtig dieser Aspekt auch ist, gibt er doch nur einen Teil der Geschichte wieder. Ich möchte die Debatte daher erweitern und die Angelegenheit aus einer ganzheitlicheren Perspektive betrachten, die drei miteinander zusammenhängende Faktoren beleuchtet: Umgestaltung, Operationen und die Anstrengungen der internationalen Gemeinschaft.

Die Umgestaltung der Verteidigung ist ein zentraler Aspekt der Lastenteilung. Eine goldene Regel innerhalb der Allianz lautet, dass der Großteil der militärischen Kapazitäten der NATO im Eigentum des jeweiligen Mitgliedslandes steht – eine seltene Ausnahme bildet dabei die Flotte der AWACS (Airborne Warning and Command System). Da ich nicht erwarte, dass die Länder von diesem Prinzip abgehen, wird die NATO auch weiterhin auf die einzelnen Mitglieder und ihre Bereitschaft, Ressourcen zur Verfügung zu stellen, angewiesen sein.

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