三种瑞典模式

人们有时把瑞典的经济和社会体制称为“瑞典模式”,要末把它描绘成为理想的模式,要末就是不正常的模式。但是瑞典的体制曾经发生过巨变。实际上从广义上来说,从十九世纪下半叶以来,一共有三种不同的“瑞典模式”。

第一种模式从大约1870年持续到二十世纪六十年代。在这一“自由化”期间,政府基本上提供了稳定的支持市场的法规、教育、医疗以及基础设施。到1960年,政府的总开支(占GDP的份额)以及收入分配都与美国的基本情况相当。在这一个世纪的期间里,瑞典从最贫穷的西方国家之一转变成为人均GDP第三富有的国家。换句话说,瑞典在建立非常慷慨的福利国家体系之前就已经是一个富国了。

第二个时期从1960年到1985年。在这一时期里,自由化时期的自由贸易体制得到了维系,而且在不同的全球贸易自由化回合中得到了加深。但是占居主导地位的要点却是建立慷慨的福利国家。到二十世纪八十年代末,与1960年的大约30%相比,公共总开支达到了GDP的60%到65%。而且,对于几乎所有的全职雇员,边际税率达到了65%至75%,与此相比,1960年大约为40%(包含了所有家庭的税收)。

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