Dean Rohrer

El poder blando de las Naciones Unidas

Joseph Stalin alguna vez desestimó la relevancia del “poder blando” con la pregunta “¿Cuántas tropas tiene el Papa?” Hoy, muchos autoproclamados realistas desestiman a las Naciones Unidas por considerarlas impotentes y sostienen que se las puede ignorar. Están equivocados.

El poder es la capacidad de incidir en los demás para que produzcan los resultados que uno quiere. El poder duro funciona a través de pagos y coerción (zanahorias y palos); el poder blando funciona a través de la atracción y la cooptación. Sin fuerzas propias y con un presupuesto relativamente reducido, las Naciones Unidas tienen tanto poder duro como pueden tomar de sus Estados miembro. Fueron creadas en 1945 para estar al servicio de sus Estados miembro y el Artículo 2.7 de su carta protege la jurisdicción soberana de sus miembros.

Después del fracaso de la Liga de Naciones en los años 1930, las Naciones Unidas estaban destinadas a hacer que los miembros permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad actuaran como policías para imponer la seguridad colectiva. Cuando las grandes potencias estaban de acuerdo, las Naciones Unidas tenían un poder duro espectacular, tal como quedó demostrado en la Guerra de Corea y la primera Guerra del Golfo. Pero estos casos fueron la excepción. Durante la Guerra Fría, el Consejo estaba dividido. Como dijo un experto, el veto de sus miembros permanentes estaba destinado a ser como una caja de fusibles en un sistema eléctrico: mejor que se apaguen las luces a que se incendie la casa.

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