Las dimensiones sociales de la globalización

La guerra contra el terrorismo y el conflicto en Irak han distraído mucha de la atención mundial sobre el urgente tema de cómo hay que manejar la globalización para beneficio de todos. Un nuevo informe, preparado por la Comisión sobre las Dimensiones Sociales de la Globalización de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT), nos recuerda lo alejada que se encuentra la administración Bush del consenso global.

La OIT es una organización tripartita con representantes de trabajadores, gobiernos y empresarios. La Comisión, encabezada por los presidentes de Finlandia y Tanzania, tiene 24 miembros (de los cuales yo fui uno) de distintas nacionalidades, grupos de interés y convicciones intelectuales, e incluye a participantes tan disímbolos como el presidente de la Toshiba y el líder de la AFL-CIO. Sin embargo, este grupo tan heterogéneo fue capaz de cristalizar el consenso mundial emergente de que la globalización, a pesar de su potencial positivo, no sólo no ha logrado desarrollar ese potencial, sino que ha contribuido de hecho al descontento social.

La falla reside en la forma en que ha sido manejada la globalización (en parte por los países, pero sobre todo, por la comunidad internacional, incluyendo instituciones como el Banco Mundial, la Organización Mundial del Comercio y el FMI, que son los responsables de establecer las "reglas del juego"). En la Comisión incluso se formó un consenso sobre varias medidas concretas para contribuir a darle un "rostro humano" a la globalización, o al menos a mitigar algunos de sus peores efectos.

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