Das Schweigen der Intellektuellen Chinas

In China gewinnt die öffentliche Meinung immer mehr an Bedeutung, wie die Krise um das US-amerikanische Spionage-Flugzeug verdeutlicht hat. Doch wo stehen die Intellektuellen Chinas? Und welche Rolle spielen sie?

In den 80er Jahren, nach der Plage der Zeit unter Mao, begann die traditionelle chinesische Achtung vor Bildung wieder zu steigen. So gab es die konfuzianische Vorstellung, dass es die höchste Berufung eines Intellektuellen sei, einen Herrscher darauf hinzuweisen, was das Beste für sein Reich wäre; sei es durch Überzeugungskraft oder – wenn man dies denn wagt – durch Kritik und die anschließende Inkaufnahme der Konsequenzen. Im Jahr 1979 hat das von Liu Binyan verfasste Werk „People or Monsters?“ dargestellt, wie der Kommunismus zu einer Vermehrung der Korruption führt; 1988 hat der Film „River Elegy“ von Su Xiaokang aufgezeigt, wie innerhalb der Partei noch immer Aspekte des engstirnigen Despotismus der imperialistischen Tradition Chinas lebendig und wohl gelitten sind. Beide Werke haben – ebenso wie andere Werke aus den 80er Jahren – die Öffentlichkeit fasziniert.

Die Jahre, die seit dem Massaker am Platz des Himmlischen Friedens verstrichen sind, erscheinen politisch und intellektuell betrachtet vergleichsweise farblos; nach 1989 schien China seinen moralischen Kompass verloren zu haben. Und dennoch: Zu einer Zeit, da das intellektuelle Gewissen am nötigsten schien, waren die Intellektuellen nicht zu vernehmen. Warum war das so?

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