La révolution des services

WASHINGTON –   La Chine et l'Inde ont accompli un énorme bond en avant sur le plan   économique. Mais la manière dont se déroule leur montée en puissance est très différente. Alors que la Chine est devenue l'usine du monde, la réputation de l'Inde n'est plus à faire dans le domaine de l'exportation de services modernes - elle a sauté l'étape du secteur manufacturier, passant directement de l'agriculture aux services.

La différence entre le type de croissance de ces deux pays est frappante, elle pose des questions fondamentales aux économistes spécialisés dans les questions de développement. Le secteur des services peut-il être aussi dynamique que le secteur manufacturier ? Les pays qui émergent actuellement peuvent-ils bénéficier de la mondialisation du secteur des services ? Ce dernier peut-il servir de locomotive à une croissance durable, à la création d'emploi et à la lutte contre la pauvreté ?

Il faut rappeler quelques faits. Compte tenu de l'état de développement du pays, le secteur des services est beaucoup plus étendu en Inde qu'en Chine. L'Inde et les autres pays d'Asie du Sud, bien qu'étant des pays pauvres au niveau régional, ont adopté le même type de croissance que des pays plus riches, plus proche de celui de l'Irlande ou d'Israël que de celui de la Chine ou de la Malaisie.

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