Un antídoto a la maldición de los recursos naturales

GINEBRA – El entendimiento geopolítico a menudo se gana con la experiencia de vida más que con un criterio amplio. Llegar al aeropuerto Charles de Gaulle en París desde Conakry, Guinea, es un caso ilustrativo: el aeropuerto de Conakry, situado en uno de los países más pobres del mundo supera al globalmente prestigioso centro francés en términos de limpieza, servicio y orgullo.

Si casos como ese se convirtieran en proyectos nacionales, Guinea lograría sumarse al pequeño grupo de países ricos en materias primas que se han desecho de la corrupción y el deterioro económico que a menudo acompañan a las riquezas naturales abundantes.

La historia ha mostrado lo difícil que es evitar la llamada maldición de los “recursos naturales”, y no afecta solamente a países menos desarrollados como Nigeria, como muchos suponen. En los años ochenta, el auge de Reino Unido impulsado por el gas y el petróleo del Mar del Norte socavó la diversificación de la competitividad económica en el país, mientras que el gobierno de la primera ministra, Margaret Thatcher gastaba mucho de los ingresos en dádivas que fomentaban el consumo excesivo.

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