Pour en finir avec la malédiction des ressources naturelles

GENÈVE – Il arrive plus souvent qu’une perspective géopolitique émerge à la suite d’une expérience réelle que grâce à des réflexions plus générales. L’arrivée à l’aéroport Charles de Gaulle à Paris, en provenance de Conakry, Guinée, en est un exemple : l’aéroport de Conakry, situé dans un des pays les plus pauvres du globe, dépasse de loin la prestigieuse plaque tournante de la France en termes de propreté, de services et  de la fierté nationale qu’il inspire.

En multipliant ce genre d’exemples au sein d’un projet national, la Guinée pourrait rejoindre le groupe restreint de pays riches en matières premières qui ont su déjouer la malédiction incarnée par la corruption et la dégradation de l’économie qui accompagnent souvent le fait de disposer de vastes ressources naturelles.

L’histoire démontre la difficulté qu’il y a à éviter la malédiction des ressources – et qu’elle n’affecte pas seulement, comme on le pense souvent, les pays les moins développés, par exemple le Nigeria. Dans les années 1980, le boom économique lié à la manne d’hydrocarbures de la mer du Nord a sapé la compétitivité générale de l’économie britannique, tandis que le gouvernement du Premier ministre Margaret Thatcher gaspillait une bonne partie des revenus en subsides qui ont encouragé une consommation excessive.

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