La nouvelle économie de la dépendance

PRINCETON –Malgré la crise financière de 2008, la plupart des pays industriels ont échappé à un effondrement tel celui qui a eu lieu lors de la Grande dépression des années 1930. Néanmoins,  en dépit de plans de secours budgétaires et monétaires de grande envergure, leurs économies ont quelques difficultés à redémarrer. La tendance de pré-crise à la hausse des inégalités de revenus et de patrimoine qui existait avant la crise se poursuit (à l'opposé de ce qui c'était passé après la Grande dépression qui a débouché sur une baisse des inégalités) et les sondages montrent une hausse rapide de l'insatisfaction de l'opinion publique et le déclin de sa confiance dans l'avenir.

L'explication du malaise d'aprés-crise (et la perception qu'en a l'opinion publique) repose sur la combinaison d'incertitudes économiques et de l'émergence de formes radicalement nouvelles d'interaction sociale. Des changements structuraux à long terme modifient la nature même du travail, et par conséquent notre manière de penser les échanges économiques.

Au début du 20° siècle, même dans les pays avancés, une grande partie de la population travaillait dans l'agriculture. Ultérieurement cette proportion a fortement baissé, suivie par la suite  d'une baisse analogue dans le secteur industriel. Depuis la fin du 20° siècle, c'est le secteur des services qui a connu la plus forte création d'emplois, notamment en ce qui concerne les services à la personne - un phénomène qui paraît aller à l'inverse de la tendance historique précédente.

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