Der Aufstieg Chinas zur „Seemacht“

Im Zeitalter der Bedrohung durch Raketen und Terroristen ist man vielerorts der Ansicht, „Seemacht“ wäre ein Konzept aus der Vergangenheit. Nicht so in China. Dort konzentriert man sich zunehmend auf seine Interessen im Zusammenhang mit der Nutzung der Meere. Dazu gehören Wirtschaftsentwicklung, territoriales Management, Versorgungssicherheit im Bereich Energie, Nahrungsmittel und Handel. Derzeit arbeitet man fieberhaft an der Entwicklung einer Flotte, die diesen Ansprüchen genügt und kauft dazu auch im Ausland ein (vor allem in Russland, aber auch in der EU).

Viele Nachbarn Chinas sind alarmiert. Im amerikanischen Verteidigungsministerium ist man der Ansicht, das Ziel Chinas sei es, eine Reihe militärischer und diplomatisch strategischer Basen – eine so genannte „Perlenkette“ – entlang der wichtigsten Seewege vom südchinesischen Meer bis zum ölreichen Nahen Osten zu errichten.

China versucht nicht nur, seine Energieversorgung zu sichern, sondern auch weiter gesteckte Sicherheitsinteressen zu verfolgen. Der Militärhafen Gwadar beispielsweise, den China in Südwestpakistan errichtet, ist strategisch so platziert, dass die  Meerenge im Persischen Golf kontrolliert werden kann. Außerdem ist dieser Hafen mit elektronischen Lauscheinrichtungen ausgestattet, um Schiffe – auch Kriegsschiffe – zu überwachen, die sich in der Straße von Hormuz und im arabischen Meer bewegen. 

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