A crise da cooperação

PARIS – a ascensão das economias emergentes em todo o mundo tem gerado um grande optimismo, não só em termos de desenvolvimento económico, mas também de cooperação global. Mas a mudança para uma ordem mundial multipolar não reforçou o multilateralismo. Na verdade, aconteceu o contrário: a lógica da soberania nacional foi palco de um retorno, com grandes economias a enfraquecerem de forma consistente a cooperação em questões que vão desde a segurança do comércio até às alterações climáticas.

Vejam com atenção a confusão que há no Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas em relação à guerra civil na Síria. Há apenas dois anos, o Conselho aprovou uma medida que autoriza a intervenção militar na Líbia – a primeira medida para implementar o princípio “responsabilidade de proteger” (R2P), o qual a assembleia geral aprovou por unanimidade em 2005.

Mas as potências emergentes logo começaram a acreditar que o Ocidente tinha usado a protecção da população civil da Líbia como pretexto para a mudança de regime (embora, realisticamente, teria sido impossível proteger a população, sem derrubar o governo de Muammar Kadafi). Agora, estes países estão largamente a rejeitar o R2P, vendo-o como um dispositivo usado pelos governos ocidentais para legitimar as suas tentativas de infringirem a soberania nacional.

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