La maldición de los recursos

Muchos países en desarrollo ricos en recursos naturales son aún más pobres que otros países peor dotados. Se debe a que los recursos naturales constituyen un premio tentador por el que luchar. Muchos países con importantes depósitos de minerales o valiosos cultivos comerciales están en manos de regímenes represivos o corruptos o desgarrados por conflictos armados. Se ha llegado a denominar ese problema ``la maldición de los recursos''.

Ahora ha surgido un amplio movimiento encaminado a luchar contra la maldición de los recursos. Global Witness, una pequeña ONG británica, fue la iniciadora, cuando organizó una campaña en pro del cierre de la frontera tailandesa-camboyana a las exportaciones de madera de los jmeres rojos para acabar con el comercio ilegal de madera de teca y otras maderas duras y preciosas. La consiguiente pérdida de ingresos desempeñó un papel fundamental en el hundimiento de esa organización genocida.

A continuación Global Witness pasó a ocuparse del problema de los diamantes en Angola y una campaña contra ``los diamantes del conflicto'' propició el proceso Kimberley de certificación. El año pasado, Global Witness, junto con más de 60 grupos de todo el mundo, lanzó la campaña ``Hagan público lo que pagan'' para obligar a las empresas dedicadas al comercio de recursos a revelar sus pagos a los gobiernos de los países en desarrollo. Contó con el respaldo del Gobierno británico y muchas empresas petroleras y mineras respondieron positivamente.

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