A vueltas de nuevo con la maldición de los recursos

Existe un fenómeno curioso que los economistas denominan la maldición de los recursos , porque los países dotados de gran cantidad de recursos naturales obtienen peores resultados por término medio que otros peor dotados. Y, sin embargo, algunos países con abundantes recursos naturales tienen mejores resultados que otros y algunos los han tenido buenos. ¿Por qué resulta tan desigual la maldición de los recursos?

Hace treinta años, Indonesia y Nigeria -países, los dos, dependientes del petróleo- tenían ingresos por habitante comparables. En la actualidad, los de Indonesia representan el cuádruplo de los de Nigeria. De hecho, los ingresos por habitante (en dólares de hacia 1995) de este último país han disminuido.

Una comparación similar es aplicable a Sierra Leona y Botswana. Esos dos países son ricos en diamantes. Sin embargo, Botswana tuvo un crecimiento económico anual de 8,7 por ciento por término medio en los treinta últimos años, mientras que Sierra Leona se sumió en una guerra civil. Entretanto, los fracasos en materia de desarrollo en el Oriente Medio rico en petróleo son legión.

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