再谈资源劫难

在经济学中,有一种奇怪的现象,经济学家称之为'资源劫难'。之所以冠名如此,是因为,一般来说,那些拥有大量丰富自然资源的国家,它们的经济发展反而不如那些相对来说资源较不丰富的国家。但是,的确有一些自然资源丰富的国家比其他国家发展迅速,而且其中某些国家已经相当富裕。为什么同是资源丰富,却给有的国家带来劫难,有的国家带来好运呢?

三十年前,印度尼西亚和尼日利亚--两个国家经济发展的支柱都是石油工业--有着很接近的人均国民收入。今天,印度尼西亚的人均国民收入为尼日利亚的四倍。事实上,尼日利亚的人均国民收入(用大概1995年的美元值来衡量)已有所下降。

比较塞拉利昂和博茨瓦纳两个国家,会发现相似的现象。两个国家都盛产钻石,然而在过去的三十年中,博茨瓦纳平均的年经济增长率为8.7%,而塞拉利昂则陷入了国内纠纷之中。与此同时,我们可以看到,中东地区许多盛产石油的国家,经济发展都是失败的。

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